Status of Ratification and Implementation of the Kampala Amendments on the Crime of Aggression
Update No. 33 (information as of 11 April 2019)
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- The following 38 States have ratified the Kampala amendments on the crime of aggression:
|State||Ratification Date||State||Ratification Date|
|Liechtenstein||8 May 2012||Georgia p||5 December 2014|
|Samoa i||25 September 2012||Malta||29 January 2015|
|Trinidad & Tobago||13 November 2012||Costa Rica||5 February 2015|
|Luxembourg i||15 January 2013||Czech Republic i||12 March 2015|
|Estonia p||27 March 2013||Switzerland||10 September 2015|
|Germany p||3 June 2013||Lithuania p||7 December 2015|
|Botswana||4 June 2013||Finland i||30 December 2015|
|Cyprus||25 September 2013||North Macedonia i||1 March 2016|
|Slovenia i||25 September 2013||El Salvador||3 March 2016|
|Andorra||26 September 2013||Iceland||17 June 2016|
|Uruguay||26 September 2013||State of Palestine||26 June 2016|
|Belgium||26 November 2013||The Netherlands||23 September 2016|
|Croatia i||20 December 2013||Chile||23 September 2016|
|Slovakia p||29 April 2014||Portugal||11 April 2017|
|Austria i||17 July 2014||Argentina||28 April 2017|
|Latvia p||26 September 2014||Panama||6 December 2017|
|Spain||26 September 2014||Ireland||27 September 2018|
|Poland p||26 September 2014||Guyana||28 September 2018|
|San Marino||14 November 2014||Paraguay||5 April 2019|
p – has pre-existing domestic laws criminalizing aggression that overlap with the Kampala Amendmentsi – has implemented the Kampala Definition of the crime of aggression
A. Concrete progress
According to the information available, government or parliamentary officials in at least the following 28 States Parties are currently actively working on the ratification of the amendments on the crime of aggression: Albania, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burundi, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, Italy, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mongolia, Montenegro, New Zealand, Peru, Romania, Senegal, Serbia and Venezuela. In 7 further States Parties the process is in its early stages: Ghana, Guatemala, Japan, Mexico, Moldova, Republic of Korea and Tunisia.
On 19 March 2019, the Commission on Sovereignty, Integration, International Relations and Integral Security of the National Assembly of Ecuador approved the draft report on the ratification of the Kampala Amendments. Ecuador is moving steadily towards the approval of this draft, which will be discussed in the next plenary session of the National Assembly.
B. Commitments to ratification
At the ninth and tenth sessions of the Assembly of States Parties (ASP; December 2010 and 2011), the following States Parties made concrete commitments to ratify the amendments on the crime of aggression: Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and South Africa. In addition, the following countries made positive references to the amendments: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Canada, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Fiji, Ghana, Hungary, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Lesotho, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Republic of Korea, Senegal, Serbia and the United Kingdom.
On 16 February 2012, at the Pacific Outreach Roundtable on the ICC in Sydney, participants from Australia, Cook Islands, Marshall Islands, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu and New Zealand agreed that it was desirable for all Pacific Island Countries to become States Parties to the Rome Statute and called upon the region to consider acceding to the Statute as amended in 2010 (i.e. including the amendments on war crimes and on the crime of aggression).
On 11 June 2012, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela called upon all States Parties to ratify the amendments adopted in Kampala.
In the context of the General Assembly High-Level Meeting on the Rule of Law on 24 September 2012, the following countries made pledges regarding the ratification of the amendments on the crime of aggression: Argentina (asap), Bulgaria (by the end of 2014), Germany (implementation) and the Netherlands (asap).
At a side event to the High-Level Meeting on the Rule of Law on “Preventing the illegal use of force through judicial accountability”, organized by Liechtenstein on 24 September 2012 in New York, the Minister of Justice of South Africa, Mr. Jeffrey Thamsanqa Radebe, announced that South Africa will ratify the amendments before 2017.
At the opening of the eleventh session of the Assembly of States Parties (ASP) in The Hague on 14 November 2012, the President of Senegal, Mr. Macky Sally, announced that his country will ratify the amendments without delay. Besides Senegal, the following States Parties stated their concrete commitment to ratify the amendments on the crime of aggression: Chile, Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Romania. Other States Parties made positive references to the Kampala Amendments on the crime of aggression, such as Bolivia, Ghana, Guatemala, Japan, Jordan and Sierra Leone.
The following States have accepted a recommendation to ratify the amendments on the crime of aggression in the context of the Universal Periodic Review of the Human Rights Council: Ecuador (May 2012), Burkina Faso (April 2013), and Montenegro (April 2013), Côte d’Ivoire (April 2014), Portugal (April 2014).
On 20 October 2013, the Latin-American Parliament adopted resolution AO/2013/07, which recognizes the jurisdiction of the ICC over the four core crimes and encourages member states to initiate and/or follow up the process of ratification and implementation of the Kampala amendments. It also calls on all members to submit a report on the implementation of the Rome Statute and the obligations of cooperation with the International Criminal Court as well as the ratification of the Kampala amendments.
At the twelfth session of the Assembly of States Parties (ASP) in The Hague on 20 and 21 November 2013, States Parties made positive references to the Kampala Amendments on the crime of aggression, including Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo and Guatemala.
In its 2013 submissions regarding the Plan of Action for achieving universality and full implementation of the Rome Statute, Latvia informed that it plans to ratify and implement the Kampala amendments in 2014. Senegal likewise informed of its plans to ratify the amendments.
At the 18th session of the Universal Periodic Review, Afghanistan, Chile and Dominican Republic agreed to examine recommendations to ratify the Kampala Amendments.
At the same session of the UPR, New Zealand committed to taking a formal decision on the ratification of the Kampala Amendments in the first quarter of 2014.Previously, on 5 June 2013, on the basis of a motion tabled by Dr Kennedy Graham MP, member of Parliamentarians for Global Action, and of the Council of Advisers of the Global Institute for the Prevention of Aggression, the parliament of New Zealand had unanimously called on the government to ratify the Kampala Amendments to the Rome Statute and to become “one of the 30 ratifying countries needed by 2017 in order to implement this amendment.”
At a regional seminar about the Kampala amendments for Eastern European States, which took place in Slovenia on 15 and 16 May 2014, five States of the Eastern European Group (EEG) announced their intention to ratify before the end of the year (Albania, Czech Republic, Georgia, Macedonia, Poland), while the remaining nine EEG States Parties are working on the ratification process. The region continues to hold the highest percentage of States that have ratified the Crime of Aggression.
On 17 July 2014 the European Parliament adopted resolution 2014/2724(RSP), which calls on the European Union to adopt a common position on the Kampala Amendments. It also calls on EU Member States to ratify and implement the amendments and to support their activation. The EU is also encouraged to include the Kampala Amendments in its external actions, including through the provision of technical assistance.
On 9 October 2014, the Legislative Assembly of Honduras adopted a motion requesting the government to submit a bill on the ratification of the Kampala Amendments. A government response is still outstanding.
At the 20th session of the Universal Periodic Review (27 October to 7 November 2014), Italy agreed to examine a recommendation to ratify the Kampala Amendments.
At the eight session of the Consultative Assembly of Parliamentarians for the ICC and the Rule of Law, organized by Parliamentarians for Global Action and hosted by the Moroccan Chamber of Deputies in Rabat on 04 and 05 December 2014, 148 members of Parliament from 49 countries from all regions of the world adopted the Rabat Plan of Action through which they resolved to ensure the ratification of the Kampala Amendments by their countries and to achieve 30 ratifications before 2016. The Plan of Action also calls on parliamentarians to “individually or collectively, submit for consideration of the Nobel Peace Prize committee the results of the Kampala Review Conference and of those individuals that have relentlessly fought to proscribe the illegal use of force among nations.”
In response to a parliamentary question asked by Dip Garrido (member of Parliamentarians for Global Action) on 5 November 2014, the government of Argentina indicated that the Technical and Legal Secretary of the Presidency had recommended ratification of the Kampala Amendments. The bill for such a ratification would be submitted to Congress following the completion of inter-ministerial consultations.
At the thirteenth session of the ASP (December 2014), the following States Parties made concrete commitments to ratify the amendments on the crime of aggression: Albania, Brazil, Chile, Iceland, South Africa and Tanzania. In addition, the following countries made positive references to the amendments: Austria, Estonia, Georgia, Germany, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Mexico, New Zealand, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Uruguay as well as the European Union (in a statement delivered by Italy).
At the 22nd session of the Universal Periodic Review (4 to 15 May 2015), Bulgaria, Marshall Islands and Maldives agreed to examine recommendations to ratify the Kampala Amendments. During its presentation to the Human Rights Council, Mongolia informed that its ratification procedure is expected to be completed in 2015.
At a Side Event during the 4th World Conference of Speakers of Parliament on 1 September 2015, the Presidents of the Parliament of Senegal and Madagascar pledged to work towards the speedy ratification of the Kampala Amendments by their countries.
At the fourteenth session of the Assembly of States Parties (ASP) in The Hague on 19 and 20 November 2015, Finland announced that it was in the final stages of ratifying the Kampala Amendments and hoped to conclude the ratification by the end of the year. Other States Parties made positive references to the Kampala Amendments on the crime of aggression, including Argentina, Botswana, Chile, Costa Rica, Estonia, Samoa, Slovenia, Uruguay and Luxembourg on behalf of the EU. The following States encouraged the early activation of the Court’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression: Brazil, Czech Republic, Liechtenstein and Switzerland
A. Adopted Domestic Legislation
On 27 February 2012, Luxembourg adopted a revision to its criminal code and code of criminal procedure that incorporate the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression.
On 14 May 2012, the revised criminal code of Slovenia entered into force. Article 103 incorporates the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression.
On October 2011, Croatia adopted the new criminal code containing the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression in Article 89. The criminal code entered into force on 1 January 2013.
On 1 January 2014, amendments to the criminal code of the Czech Republic, reflecting the Kampala amendments, will enter into force.
On 28 January 2014, Ecuador adopted a new Criminal Code which includes the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression in article 88. The code will enter into force on 28 August 2014.
On 21 October 2014, the parliament of Samoa adopted its International Criminal Court Amendment Act 2014, which quotes the Kampala definition.
On 24 July 2015, the parliament of Austria approved amendments to the criminal code that incorporate the crime of aggression based on the Kampala definition. The new criminal code entered into force on 1 January 2016.
On 5 February 2015, the parliament of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia adopted amendments to the criminal code that incorporate the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression into Article 403-b.
B. Concrete Progress
In Peru and Venezuela, draft criminal code bills containing the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression are under consideration at the parliamentary level.
In June 2012, in New Zealand, MP Kennedy Graham tabled a Member’s Bill to incorporate the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression in domestic law and to introduce a mechanism to ensure the legality of the use of force by New Zealand’s leaders. The bill is under ballot.
C. Commitment to domestic implementation
It is to be expected that a number of States Parties that are preparing ratification will also adopt legislation implementing the Kampala definition in domestic law, including Belgium, Botswana, Chile, Costa Rica, Greece, Guatemala, Honduras, Lithuania, Madagascar and Peru. In some countries, implementing legislation or possible changes to existing laws are expected to be considered after ratification, e.g. in Argentina, Germany, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago and Uruguay.
D. Pre-existing domestic legislation criminalizing aggression
Several States Parties, and some non-States Parties, already had domestic provisions criminalizing aggression prior to the Review Conference that may overlap with the Kampala definition of the crime of aggression. These include Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Georgia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Paraguay, Poland, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Vietnam
Declaration of Non-Acceptance (opt-out)
On 30 November 2015, Kenya lodged a declaration of non-acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court pertaining to the crime of aggression pursuant to article 15 bis (4) of the Rome Statute.
On 2 February 2018, Guatemala submitted a declaration of non-acceptance of the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression, referred to in article 15 bis (4), to the Registrar of the ICC. Guatemala’s declaration states that after careful examination of articles 5, 12, 15 bis (4) and 121 (5) as well as the activation resolution of December 14 2017, Guatemala decided to declare that it does not accept the jurisdiction of the Court over the crime of aggression.