Academic Discussion

Panel Discussions

Chatham House: A Criminal Tribunal for Aggression in Ukraine, 4 March 2022

Panelists: Dapo Akande, Gordon Brown, Mykola Gnatovsky, Dmytro Kuleba, Philippe Sands

Chair: Elizabeth Wilmshurst

Council on Foreign Relations: In Defense of a Democracy – Prosecuting Russian Aggression Against Ukraine, 25 March 2022

Panelists: Oona A. Hathaway, Claus Kreß

Chair: David J. Scheffer

Talking Foreign Policy: Experts discuss prosecution of war crimes in Russia-Ukraine conflict | The Sound of Ideas | Ideastream Public Media, 24 October 2022

Panelists: David Crane, Milena Sterio, Jennifer Trahan, Paul Williams, Michael Scharf


Articles in Academic Journals

Gleb Bogush, “Commited by Men”: Individual Criminal Responsibility for Aggression Against Ukraine, Polish Review of International and European Law, 12(2), 93–113

James A. Green, Christian Henderson, Tom Ruys, Russia’s Attack on Ukraine and the Jus ad Bellum, Journal on the Use of Force and International Law 9 (2022), 4-30

Claus Kreß, The Ukraine War and the Prohibition of the Use of Force in International Law, TOAEP Occasional Paper Series No. 13 (2022)

Claus Kreß, Verbrechen gegen den Frieden, Zeitschrift für Rechtspolitik 3 (2022), 94-96

Carrie McDougall, The Imperative of Prosecuting Crimes of Aggression Committed against Ukraine, Journal of Conflict and Security Law 28 (2023), Volume 28, 203–230

Carrie McDougall, Why Ukraine Needs an International – Not Internationalised – Tribunal to Prosecute the Crimes of Aggression Committed Against It, Polish Review of International and European Law, 12(2), 65–91

Michael Scharf, Power Shift: The Return of the Uniting for Peace Resolution, 55 Case Western Reserve Journal of international Law (2023, forthcoming)

Jennifer Trahan, The Role of the UN Security Council & General Assembly In Responding to the Invasion of Ukraine, Polish Review of International and European Law, 12(2), 23–64


Mathilde Philip-Gay, Peut-on juger Poutine?, Albin Michel (2023)

Blog Posts

Hans Corell, Irwin Cotler and David Crane, Bringing Putin to Justice and the Lessons of History, 13 October 2022

Irwin Cotler, Hans Corell, David Crane & David Scheffer, Russia Must Be Held Accountable for Alleged Criminal Aggression in Ukraine: Two Paths to Justice, 15 November 2023

Tom Dannenbaum, Mechanisms for Criminal Prosecution of Russia’s Aggression Against Ukraine, 10 March 2022

Oona A. Hathaway, The Case for Creating an International Tribunal to Prosecute the Crime of Aggression Against Ukraine (Part I), 20 September 2022

Kevin Jon Heller, Creating a Special Tribunal for Aggression Against Ukraine Is a Bad Idea, 7 March 2022

Claus Kreß, Stephan Hobe and Angelika Nußberger, The Ukraine War and the Crime of Aggression: How to Fill the Gaps in the International Legal System, 23 January 2023

Carrie McDougall, Why Creating a Special Tribunal for Aggression Against Ukraine is the Best Available Option: A Reply to Kevin Jon Heller and Other Critics, 15 March 2022

Astrid Reisinger Coracini, The Case for Creating a Special Tribunal to Prosecute the Crime of Aggression Against Ukraine (Part II), 23 September 2022

Owiso Owiso, An Aggression Chamber for Ukraine Supported by the Council of Europe, 30 March 2022

Jennifer Trahan, U.N. General Assembly Should Recommend Creation Of Crime Of Aggression Tribunal For Ukraine: Nuremberg Is Not The Model, 7 March 2022

Jennifer Trahan, Revisiting the History of the Crime of Aggression in Light of Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine, 19 April 2022

Jennifer Trahan, The Case for Creating a Special Tribunal to Prosecute the Crime of Aggression Against Ukraine (Part III), 26 September 2022

David Scheffer, Forging a Cooperative Relationship Between Int’l Crim. Court and a Special Tribunal for Russian Aggression Against Ukraine, 25 October 2022

Sergey Vasiliev, Aggression against Ukraine: Avenues for Accountability for Core Crimes, 3 March 2022

Noah Weisbord, Vladimir Putin’s Case, 7 April 2022

News Articles and Others

Oona A. Hathaway, A Crime in Search of a Court: How to Hold Russia Accountable, 19 May 2022

Claus Kreß, Empörung eines verletzten Völkerrechtsbewusstseins, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 24 March 2022

Claus Kreß, Gigant ohne Glieder, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 29 July 2022

Mike Newton, Disappearing Human Rights Defenders: Russia’s Human Rights Violations and International Crimes in Ukraine, ABA Center for Human Rights Paper to the 2022 OSCE Human Dimensions Conference, 27 September 2022



For scholarship on the crime of aggression generally, see here.

Caveat: The site does not suggest that Ukraine is the only situation where the use of armed force is illegal.